To study the tolerance of X. Therefore, during fruit placement, fruits collected at each elevation were only placed at the collection elevation or higher. The placement time was fixed in accordance with the rising water, specifically when the water was about to inundate the target elevation. One sample consisted of hundred grains of X. Each treatment consisted of 20 pots. After the water recession, the nylon net over the pot was removed.
The fruits were watered regularly to maintain the moisture of the soil in the pot. The germination of seeds at different elevations was observed every 10 days until the subsequent submergence at the end of the experiment in The seed germination percentage G is the total germination percentage until the end of the germination period.
This parameter was used to calculate the rate and regularity of seed germination at the early stage, which reflects the vitality of the seeds. Twenty seedlings were randomly selected from the earliest batch of seedlings germinated from X. The plants were recovered when the reservoir impoundment was about to submerge the transplanted X. The seeds at different degrees of maturity produced by each strain were counted. The effects of submergence on the seed germination of fruits at different degrees of maturity and on seed production were analyzed through one-way ANOVA.
The data were transformed to prevent variance heterogeneity. If the transformed data did not satisfy the requirement of homogeneity of variance, a nonparametric test was performed to compare and analyze the data.
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SPSS The error has been fixed in the paper. Mallik, A. Riparian vegetation change in upstream and downstream reaches of three temperate rivers dammed for hydroelectric generation in British Columbia, Canada. New, T. Wang, Q. Influence of the Three Gorges Reservoir on the vegetation of its drawdown area: Effects of water submersion and temperature on seed germination of Xanthium Sibiricum Compositae.
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Long-term effects of river regulation on river margin vegetation. Long-term responses of river-margin vegetation to water-level regulation. Science , — Bai, B. A comparative study of the plant community of the future water-level-fluctuating zone and the natural water-level-fluctuating zone in the Three-Gorges Reservoir. Journal of Southwest Agricultural University 27 , — Lu, Z. Preliminary effects of impounding on vegetation in drawdown zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region.
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A preliminary research about the occurrence and influence factors of Astragalus sinicus L hard seeds. Seed 4 , 68—71 Hlzel, N. Ecological significance of seed germination characteristics in flood-meadow species. Flora , 12—24 Jutila, H. Seed banks of river delta meadows on the west coast of Finland. Annales Botanici Fennici 39 , 49—61 Pattern and biodiversity of plant community in water-level-fluctuation zone of Pengxi River after impoundment of Three Gorges Reservoir.
Plant communities in newly created wetlands in water-level fluctuation zone of Three Gorges Reservoir after flooding to m height.
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Chinese Journal of Ecology 28 , — Sun, R. Plant communities in water-level-fluctuating-zone of Baijia stream in Three Gorges Reservoir after its initiate impounding to m height. Wetland Science 8 , 1—7 Shen, J. Effects of storage condition and duration on seed germination of four annual species growing in water-level-fluctuation zone of Three Gorges Reservoir.http://bbmpay.veritrans.co.id/vilamarxant-aplicaciones-para-conocer-gente.php
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Acta Ecologica Sinica 30 , — Primack, R. Relationships among flowers, fruits and seeds. Yang, Q. Summarization on causes of seed dormancy and dormancy polymorphism. Acta Botanica Boreali Occidentalia Sinica 23 , — Song, S. Seed Biology Science Press, Beijing, Willats, W.
In - situ analysis of pectic polysaccharides in seed mucilage and at the root surface of Arabidopsis thaliana. Planta , 37—44 Wang, X. China Flora Editing Group. Flora of China — Science Press, Beijing, Download references.
Correspondence to Bo Zeng. Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Reprints and Permissions. Sustainability By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines. If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Advanced search. Skip to main content. Subjects Environmental impact Structural geology. Introduction The regulation of river flow through the construction of dams for hydroelectric power generation, irrigation and flood control has been a common phenomenon worldwide for centuries but has shown increasing intensity in the last century 1.
Results Impact of submergence on the germination of X. Figure 1. Full size image. Full size table. Figure 2. Figure 3.
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Figure 4. Figure 5. Experimental plants X. References 1.